Tyrosine kinase                        Mechanism  

Examples

EGFR (ErbB1)

Mutation (EGFR-vIII)

Gliomas

 

Mutations in TK-domain

Non-small cell lung cancer

 

Over-expression or growth factor mediated activation

Head- and neck, lung-, breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancer

HER2 (ErbB2)

Over-expression (e.g. amplification of the gene)

Breast-, ovary- and lung cancer

c-Kit (cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene)

Mutation (constitutive TK activity)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor)

Mutations

Fibrosarcoma, chronic myelomocytic leukaemia 

 

Non-receptor tyrosine kinases

Bcr-Abl (Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson)

Mutation (translocation)

Chronic myeloid  leukemia

Table1: Examples of dysregulated tyrosine kinases in various cancer types [29-31].