Target Agent Mechanism Affected Model of study Author
COX-1 SC-560
SC-560
SC-560
VEGF-C/COX-1
VEGF-C/COX-1
VEGF-C/COX-2
OSC-1 cell line
OE-33 cell line
OSC-2 cell line
[111]
[111]
[111]
COX-1/COX-2 Indomethacin Aspirin
NSAIDs
PGE2/tumour growth

COX
COX-2
Xenograft model
Patients
Patients
[92,112]
[113]
COX-2 Parecoxib
NS-398
SC-58125
SC-58125
JTE-522
Quercetin Nimesulide MF-tricyclic
PGE2
PGE2/cell proliferation
PGE2/cell proliferation
Cell proliferation
PGE2
COX-2/PGE2/apoptosis/proliferation
COX-2/PGE2apoptosis/proliferation
COX-2/PGE2/inflammation/tumour growth PGE2/inflammation
Xenograft model
Cell line
Cell line
Rat model
Rat model
Cell line
Cell line   Rat model
[92,90]
[90]
[114]
[115]
[48,86]
EP1 SC-15322
ONO-8711
Cell proliferation
PGE2
Cell line
Human
Endothelial cells
[90]
[116]
EP1/EP2 AH6809
AH6809
Cell proliferation
Cell proliferation
Cell line
Rat model
[90]
[114]
EP4 AH-23848B
AH-23848B
AH23848
CJ-042794
PGE2
Cell proliferation
Leptin/PGE2
PGE2/PGE2-induced cAMP levels
Xenograft model
Cell line
Cell line
Cell line and human whole blood
[92]
[90]
[94]
[97]
Table 1: The COX inhibitors and EP antagonists currently available and being used in OAC models. This table sets out the drug targets, the specific mechanisms affected and the specific models used. cAMP; cyclic adenosine monophosphate.