Target Agent Mechanism Affected Model of study Author
COX-1 SC-560 SC-560 SC-560 VEGF-C/COX-1 VEGF-C/COX-1 VEGF-C/COX-2 OSC-1 cell line OE-33 cell line OSC-2 cell line [111] [111] [111]
COX-1/COX-2 Indomethacin Aspirin NSAIDs PGE2/tumour growth COX COX-2 Xenograft model Patients Patients [92,112] [113]
COX-2 Parecoxib NS-398 SC-58125 SC-58125 JTE-522 Quercetin Nimesulide MF-tricyclic PGE2 PGE2/cell proliferation PGE2/cell proliferation Cell proliferation PGE2 COX-2/PGE2/apoptosis/proliferation COX-2/PGE2apoptosis/proliferation COX-2/PGE2/inflammation/tumour growth PGE2/inflammation Xenograft model Cell line Cell line Rat model Rat model Cell line Cell line   Rat model [92,90] [90] [114] [115] [48,86]
EP1 SC-15322 ONO-8711 Cell proliferation PGE2 Cell line Human Endothelial cells [90] [116]
EP1/EP2 AH6809 AH6809 Cell proliferation Cell proliferation Cell line Rat model [90] [114]
EP4 AH-23848B AH-23848B AH23848 CJ-042794 PGE2 Cell proliferation Leptin/PGE2 PGE2/PGE2-induced cAMP levels Xenograft model Cell line Cell line Cell line and human whole blood [92] [90] [94] [97]
Table 1: The COX inhibitors and EP antagonists currently available and being used in OAC models. This table sets out the drug targets, the specific mechanisms affected and the specific models used. cAMP; cyclic adenosine monophosphate.