Figure 2: CAFs Promotes EMT and EMT-associated Migration and Invasion in Co-cultured MKN28 Gastric Cancer Cells. (A) Transwell migration and invasion of MKN28 gastric cancer cells co-cultured with CAF or NF cells. These figures showed the representative results from CAF02 and the paired NF02 cells. When cocultured with the CAF cells, the MKN28 gastric cancer cells showed a significant increase of migratory and invasive capacities compared with the cells co-cultured with the NF cells. Scale bar: 200 μm. ***, p<0.001, relative to the MKN28 cells co-cultured with the paired NF cells. (B) Expressions of EMT markers in MKN28 cells after co-cultivation. In MKN28 gastric cancer cells, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly increased by >4-folds when co-cultured with the CAF cells, compared to the cells co-cultured with the NF cells. On the contrary, relative to the NF cells, co-culturing with the CAF cells resulted in significantly decreases of the expression of vimentin, Snail, Slug and MMP-9 (by ~28%, ~78%, ~71% and ~46%, respectively) in MKN28 cells. *, p<0.05; ***, p<0.001, relative to the cells cocultured with the NF cells.