Baseline TM  Net BPDE-induced TM  Net γ radiation-induced TM
N MeanĀ  (SD) N Mean (SD) N MeanĀ  (SD)
Overall
Cases 172 1.78(1.01) 143 0.88(0.94) 167 1.80(1.47)
Controls 154 1.60(1.03) 120 0.62(0.77) 146 1.60(1.25)
Pa   0.051   0.031   0.318
Characteristicsin controls
Sex
Male 137 1.54(1.01) 106 0.57 ( 0.69) 130 1.60(1.30)
Female 17 2.10(1.09) 14 1.02(1.18) 16 1.62(0.88)
Pa   0.010   0.233   0.483
Age
<62 71 1.53(0.94) 53 0.50(0.70) 67 1.62(1.30)
≥62 83 1.66(1.11) 67 0.72(0.81) 79 1.58(1.22)
Pa   0.551   0.247   0.874
Smoking status
Never 74 1.49(0.93) 55 0.52(0.74) 68 1.57(1.21)
Ever 80 1.71(1.11) 65 0.71(0.79) 78 1.63(1.30)
Pa   0.280   0.117   0.627
GERD
No 128 1.64(1.09) 100 0.59(0.70) 122 1.58(1.24)
Yes 26 1.40(0.69) 20 0.77(1.04) 24 1.73(1.36)
Pa   0.537   0.379   0.675
Table 2: DNA damage in overall cases and controls, and correlations of DNA damage and selected host characteristics in control participants. aWilcoxon rank-sum test was used to evaluate the difference in DNA damages among subgroups. Note: some blood samples were not assayed for mutagen-induced DNA damage.