Citation Study type   Case DC-vaccine treated Antigen source Culture of DC               Dosage Immunological reaction      Clinical response
[2] Case report 1 R-GBM allogeneic MHC-I GBM peptides GM-CSF and IL-4; i.d. ½ wks (× 3) Increased TILs PD, OS:21m
[4] Phase I 9 N-GBM(n=7), AA(n=2) autologous tumor specific, MHC-I GM-CSF and IL-4; s.c. ½ wks (× 3) SCR, TILs (CTL and Tm) Med OS; 455d
[3] Phase I 8 GBM(n=5), AA(n=3) ATC GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-α i.d. 1/3 wks (× 9) Increased NK cells, IFN-γ PR(n=2); SD(n=4); PD(n=2);
[6] Phase I/II 10 GBM(n=7), AA(n=3) ATL GM-CSF and IL-4 i.d. and/or i.t. (ommaya) 1/3 wks (× 10) Increased NK cells; DTH+; infiltration of T cells --
[5] Phase I/II 17 N-GBM, R-GBM ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; 3 s.c.,1/2 wks (× 3)+1 at 6th wks Increased IFN-γ --
[11] Phase I/II 14 N-GBM(n=1) and AA (n=1); R-GBM(n=9) and AA(n=3) ATL CM-CSF and IL-4 s.c. 1 /2 wks (× 3) Increased IFN-γ mRNA Med OS; 133 wks
[7] Phase I 7 EM (n=3); GBM(N=2); AA(n=1); PA(n=1); MB(n=1); PXAs (n=1) Tumor tissue RNA GM-CSF and IL-4 i.v. and i.d. ½ wks × 2+1/1 mth (× 5)
[9] Case report 1 AA ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 i.d. ½ wks (× 2)+1/1 mth (× 6) DTH(+) PFS(60m)
[8] Phase I 12 HGG (n=8), AA(n=4) ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 i.d. 1 at 1st w+2 at 2nd+1/1 mth DTH(+) CCR(1), NC(3), PD(3); Med OS: 42.0 wks
[10] Phase I/II 15 GBM(n=6); AA(n=9) ATC FCs and rhIL-12 GM-CSF, IL-4, and TNF-α; i.d , s.c. ½ wks (× 6) increased IFN-γ, PR (1), MR(1), NC (1), PD(3)
[13] Phase I 12 N-GBM(n=7); R-GBM(n=5) Acid-eluted ATCP GM-CSF and IL-4 i.d. 1/2-4 wks (× 3) Tumor specific CTL; Med PFS: 15.5 m Med OS: 23.4 m
[12] Phase/Ⅱ 24 R-AA(n=6); GBM(n=18) ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; OK-432 i.d. or i.d. combined i.t. (ommaya) 1/3 wks DTH(+); increased tumor specific CTLs Med OS 480d; PR(1), MR(3), NC(6), PD(8)
[14] PhaseⅠ 7 R-GBM ; AA irradiated ATC and TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblast UPCI95-033 UPCI 99-111 i.d. 1 st in D1+2nd in D7 +1/2 wks CD4+, CD8+ IFN-γ against EphA2883–89; HLA-A2 UPCI95033: Stable disease 4m (n=2) UPCI99-111: Med PFS 6m
[16] PhaseⅡ 34 N-GBM(n=11); R-GBM(n=23) ATL GM-CSF and IL-4 s.c. ½ wks (× 3)+1st wk#6 increased IFN-γ N-GBM OS: 642 ± 61d; PFS: 308 ± 55d; R-GBM OS: 599 ± 75d; PFS: 401 ± 53d
[24]  Phase I 13 GBM(n=9) and AA(n=4) ATC  GM-CSF and IL-4 i.d. ½ wks (× 6)+1/6 wks Increased T cell infiltration   Med OS: 11m
[15] Phase/Ⅱ 56 R-GBM ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 i.d. G1: 1st, 1w, 2nd, 3 w, ¼ wks; G2: ½ wks (× 5), ¼ w; G3: 1/1 w (× 4) DTH(+) Med PFS 3m; OS, 9.6m.
  [17]   Phase/Ⅱ   45   HGG(n=33), MB/PNET(n=5), EM(n=4) and ATRT(n=3)   ATL   GM-CSF and IL-4 i.d. G1: 1st, 1 w, 2nd, 3 w, ¼ w; G2: ½ w (× 5), ¼ w; G3: 1/1 w (× 4), ATL; G4: 1/1 w (× 4)   一 HGG: Med OS 13.5m
[18] Phase/Ⅱ 8 N-GBM ATL GM-CSF and IL-4; TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 i.d. 1/1 w (× 4)+1/2 wks (vacc+ATL) increased CD8+CD25+cell, T-cell IFN-γ Med OS: 24m; PFS: 18m
[19] Phase I/II 17 N-GBM, AA and R-GBM, AA ATL INF-Y S.C 1/1wks (× 4)+1/2 wks (× 2)+1/2 mth (× 4) Increased TIL GBM:Med:OS 520d
[42] PhaseⅠ 5 R-HGG Stem-like associate antigen GM-CSF and IL-4 ½ w (× 3)+poly–ICICI M1/2 wks  一  一
[21] RCT Phase II 34 N- GBM and R- GBM ATL GM-CSF and IL-4 s.c. 1/1 w (× 4)+½ wks (× 2) +1/4 wks (× 4) Med OS: 31.9m; Med PFS: 8.5m
[22] Phase II 25 N-and R- GBM ATC antigen by heat-shock GM-CSF and IL-4 i.d. 1st in D7+2nd in D14+3Rd in D28+4th in D42 Med OS: 17 m
[23] Phase I 34 GBM(27) and AA(7) ATL, GAA GM-CSF and IL-4 ½ wks+1/3 mth Lymphocyte subset change ATL/GAA; Med OS 34.4m/15.5m
Abbreviations: R-GBM: Recurrent GBM; GBM: Gliobastoma Multiforme; I.D.: Intradermally; Wks: Weeks; PD: Progressive Disease; OS: Overall Survival; N-GBM: Newly Diagnosed GBM; AA: Anaplastic Astrocytoma; S.C.: Subcutaneously; Med: Media; ATC: Autologous Tumor Cell; PR: Partial Response; SD: Stable Disease; PD: Progressive Disease; ATL: Autologous Tumor Lysate; EM: Ependymoma; PA: Pilocytic Astrocytoma; MB: Medulloblastoma; PXA: Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; I.V.: Intravenously; Mth: Months; PFS: Progression Free Survival; HGG: High Grade Gliomas; CCR: Continued Complete Remission; NC: No Change; MR: Mixed Response; ATCP: Autologous Tumor Cell Peptide; PNET: Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors; GAA: Glioma Associated Antigen.
Table 1: Characteristics of clinical trials against gliomas using DCs based vaccine immunotherapy.