Author, year Direct anticancer effect Observation Mechanism
Song et al. [56] Inhibits tumor growth and invasion (colon cancer cell) -PL significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. -Expression of cyclin D1, TCF/LEF, MMP-9 were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Li et al. [17] Antiproliferative effect (colon cancer cells) -PL inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation -Decreased expression of Reg IV, and EGFR mRNA - Decreased plasma Reg IV, EGFR, Akt concentration Down-regulating Reg IV and EGFR à may lead to disruption of the Reg IV/EGFR/Akt signaling pathway
Lu et al. [57] Inhibits tumor growth (breast and bladder cancer cell) -Hispolon from PL inhibited cancer cell growth - p21WAF1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was elevated in hispolon-treated cells - MDM2, a negative regulator of p21WAF1, was degraded after hispolon treatment. -Activated ERK1/2 was recruited to MDM2 leading to MDM2 degradation Hispolon from PL ubiquitinates and downregulates MDM2 via MDM2-recruited activated ERK1/2 and upregulates p21WAF1
Guo et al. [31] Cancer growth arrest (lung cancer cells) -PL induces cell-cycle arrest at a low concentration. -Associated with decrease of CDK 2, 4 and 6 PL suppresses the activation of CDK à unable to form complexes with cyclin D,E, or A à maintains phospho-Rb à blockage of cell-cycle progression
Sliva et al. [36] Suppressed growth and invasive behavior (breast cancer cell) -PL inhibits proliferation and colony formation, -Growth inhibition is mediated by cell cycle arrest at S phase through upregulation of p27Kip1 - Suppression of invasion by inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion through suppression of uPA secretion Inhibition of serine-threonine kinase AKT signaling, upregulation of p27Kip1, and suppression of uPA
TCF/LEF, T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor; MMP, matrix metalloprotease; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; uPA urokinase-plasminogen activator
Table 1: Direct anticancer effects of PL and proposed molecular mechanisms.