Figure 4: An example of a typical SIMCA P+ variable plot (VIP). This example has ranked all the variable m/z ions that differentiated between the urine samples spiked or un-spiked with paracetamol. An analysis revealed that paracetamol, its conjugates and formulation components of paracetamol tablets were ranked at VIP score of more than 1 (highlighted in red circle). These ions represent (the biomarker) analytes distinguishing between two groups using shotgun analysis.