Sources of Variation Degrees of Freedom (DF) Sum of Squares (SS) Mean Squares (MS) F-Cal F-Tab (5%)
Among Treatments ta -1 Among Treatments SS (TaSS) Among Treatments MS=TMS=(TaSS)/(ta -1) TMS/EMS From statistical table
Within Treatments (Experimental error) ta (r-1) Within Treatments SS (ESS)=TSS-TaSS Within Treatments MS (EMS)=ESS/(ta(r-1))      _          _
Total ta r-1 Total SS (TSS)          _    _        _
(Obi, 2002)
Table 1: The ANOVA Format for a Completely Randomized Design (CRD).