Characteristics              BGS-1             BGS-2
Color (red units) 1.52 ± 0.07 1.61 ± 0.08
Color (yellow units) 1.31 ± 0.08 1.24 ± 0.03
Refractive Index (40 °C) 1.480 ± 0.0 1.470 ± 0.0
Density (20 °C kg/ m3) 0.9605 ± 0.05 0.9448 ± 0.07
Pour point (°C) -6 ± 0.28 -7.0 ± 0.34
Flash point (°C) 87 ± 4.03 90 ± 3.81
Fire point (°C) 95 ± 5.26 97 ± 5.17
Smoke point (°C) * *
Saponification value (mg KOH/g oil) 184.02 ± 9.01 186.09 ± 7.21
Free fatty acids % (m/m) 1.06 ± 0.05 0.59 ± 0.06
Acid value 2.16 ± 0.31 1.16 ± 0.11
Iodine value (g of I/ 100g oil) 124.16 ± 2.99 109.62 ± 5.49
Unsaponifiable matter % (m/m) 1.07 ± 0.04 1.79 ± 0.08
Ester value 181.86 ± 4.12 184.93 ± 1.62
Riechert Meissl value 1.79 ± 0.18 1.84± 0.10
Oxidative Stability    
Peroxide value (meq/kg of oil) 5.97 ± 0.11 3.02 ± 0.09
p-anisidine 3.89 ± 0.07 3.59 ± 0.06
ε1cm1% (λ 232 nm) 5.07 ± 0.11 4.32 ± 0.09
ε1cm1% (λ 270 nm) 1.03 ± 0.04 0.52 ± 0.02
Values are presented as mean ± SD of duplicate samples analyzed individually in triplicate.
*Smoke points of all the samples could not be determined due to their low burning characteristics, soaking tendency, fluidity.
Table 2: Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bitter gourd seed (BGS) oil.