Samples                                                     Extraction by shaker
             Total flavonoids (mg/g)              Total phenolic (mg/g)
             BGS-1              BGS-2              BGS-1              BGS-2
BGS-H2O 77.48 bb ± 3.83 66.03bc ± 3.51 40.59 cb ± 1.69 44.17 cb ±2.12
BGS-EtOH
Aquous EtOH (80%)
37.52 cb ± 0.99
82.01 ab ± 3.44
41.25cc ± 2.11
69.01 ac ± 3.18
70.31 ab ± 0.56
68.11 bc ± 3.06
59.42 ab ± 2.11
55.11 bb ± 3.02
                                                      Extraction by reflux
BGS-H2O 77.09 bb ± 3.41 65.17 ab ± 3.44 40.14 bb ± 2.03 40.11 bc ± 3.02
BGS-EtOH
Aquous EtOH (80%)
38.18 cb ± 1.42
81.14 ab ± 3.00
39.72 bb ± 2.48
65.27 ab ± 2.99
70.62 ab ± 1.38
70.81 ab ± 3.11
54.29 ac ± 2.16
55.00 ab ± 3.42
                                                      Extraction by ultrasound
BGS-H2O 81.11 ba ± 3.02 68.31 ba ± 2.89 50.01 ca ± 3.72 49.52 ca ± 3.43
BGS-EtOH
Aquous EtOH (80%)
44.21 ca ± 2.17
85.17 aa ± 3.72
50.38 ca ± 3.29
74.11 aa ± 3.21
77.14 ba ± 3.01
79.30 aa ± 3.21
66.90 ba ± 3.17
68.10 aa ± 2.99
Values (mean ± SD) are average of three samples of each BGS sample, analyzed individually in triplicate (n = 1x3 x 3), (P < 0.05); Superscript letters within the same row indicate significant (P< 0.05) differences of means within the extracting solvent; Subscript letters within the same column indicate significant (P< 0.05) differences of means among the extracting technique.
Table 6a: Total flavonoid and phenolic compounds of bitter gourd seed (BGS).