Variables Food-
frying efficiency
Wrist angle Subjective rating Subjective ranking
Ulnar deviation Radial deviation Palmar flexion Palmar extension Wrist Arm Shoulder Grip Exertion Mean
Participants ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **  
Bent angle (B) * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Handle length (H) ** - * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
B×H ** ** **
Bent angle ( °) 15 45 30 45 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
0 30 45 30 0 30 30 30 30 30 30 0
30 0 15 15 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 30
45 15 0 0 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45
Handle length (cm) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25
30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
** : p<0.01
* : p<0.05
- : non-significant difference
Table 1: Summary ANOVA and Duncan test with food-frying efficiency, wrist angle and subjective rating as the dependent variables.