Fermentation type and particle size distribution Flour samples Crude protein (%) Crude fat
(%)
Crude fiber (%)
Before fermentation Blend 14.72g  ± 0.03 8.42ef ± 0.01 7.33ac ± 0.02
  (<250 μm), NF Blend24 17.43e ± 0.02 10.20b ± 0.14 4.49h ± 0.08
Blend48 17.52de ± 0.01 10.90g ± 0.28 5.32fg ± 0.01
  (< 500 μm), NF Blend24 17.57de ± 0.06 10.20b ±0.07 5.19g ± 0.06
Blend48 17.85b ± 0.04 10.80de ± 0.21 4.67h ± 0.06
  (<250 μm), CF Blend24 17.30f ± 0.21 9.40c ± 0.14 5.91e ± 0.02
Blend48 17.67cd ± 0.04 8.50ef ± 0.35 5.63ef ± 0.05
  (< 500 μm), CF Blend24 17.72bc ± 0.01 9.36c ± 0.06 6.88b ± 0.04
Blend48 19.44k ± 0.05 8.86d ± 0.02 5.96e ± 0.04
Fermentation type and particle size distribution Flour samples Carbohydrates (%)  Calorific value kcal/100g
Before fermentation Blend 66.63d ± 0.02 400.81b
  (<250 μm), NF Blend24 66.90d ± 0. 28 412.67f
Blend48 65.01e ± 0. 08 412.25f
  (< 500 μm), NF Blend24 66.74d ± 0.03 412.63f
Blend48 67.97d ± 0.05 404.01h
  (<250 μm), CF Blend24 64.16f ± 0. 11 410.75d
Blend48 63.90g ± 0.42 387.06g
  (< 500 μm), CF Blend24 61.91h ± 0.36 387.54g
Blend48 60.49i ± 0. 06 384.60j
All values are means ± SD, Values in the same column with different superscripts for each type of analysis are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Where CF-Controlled fermentation and NF-Natural fermentation
QPMf24 - QPM flour fermented for 24 hours, QPMf48 - QPM flour fermented for 48 hours, Blend24- Blend fermented for 24 hours and Blend48 - Blend fermented for 48 hours.
Table 1: Proximate chemical composition of blends