Direction Shape Length Unification
Study Group Number Forward Backward Perpendicular Curve Wavy Straight Circular Primary Secondary Fragmentary Converging Diverging
Dentulous (Mean) 8.02 4.12 1.36 2.54 3.46 0.68 3.74 0.06 7.66 0.18 0 0.18 0.44
SD 1.464 1.803 1.495 1.619 1.606 0.957 1.639 0.314 1.686 0.560 0.000 0.438 0.577
Edentulous (Mean) 6.74 1.60 1.30 3.86 2.26 0.20 4.22 0.02 6.68 0.06 0.00 0.18 0.58
SD 1.07 1.48 1.31 1.90 1.38 0.49 1.54 0.14 1.02 0.31 0.00 0.44 0.64
t value 4.999 7.630 0.213 -3.745 4.004 3.150 -1.508 0.822 3.518 1.322 0 0.000 -1.147
p value <0.01 <0.001 >0.05 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01 >0.05 >0.05 <0.001 >0.05 NA >0.05 >0.05
Table 1: The mean and standard deviation of the palatal rugae pattern in the study groups.