Levels Domains Illustrations Types of causality
Elementary particles Physics, mathematics Stochastic events participate in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Physical theory
Molecular Biochemistry, genetics Neurotransmitters fixed to NMDA receptors can lead to a chain of chemical reactions that modifies the neurones gene’s expression. Mechanical
Unicellular Neurobiology Chronic alcohol consumption makes NMDA glutamate receptors hypersensitive to glutamate and desensitised GABAergic receptors. This explains the state of excitability following alcohol withdrawal. Mechanical
Multicellular Neurobiology Endogenous opioid system regulates neurochemical effects of alcohol on striatal dopamine turnover. Mechanical
Organism Cognitive neuroscience Electroencephalogram coupled to transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown that alcohol reduces the excitability of the prefrontal cortex. Mechanical , probabilistic
Population Psychology, epidemiology Acute consumption of alcohol decreases cognition and reaction time. Blood alcohol concentrations of 1.5 g/dL is associated to a 20 fold increased risk of road accidents. Modeling, probabilistic
Community Social epidemiology, social psychology, law Social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy interact and are associated to drinking behaviours in college students. Modeling, probabilistic, non-conformity
Ecosystem Ecology People who consumed alcohol had lower loss of bone mineral density related to seasonal changes. Mechanical, probabilistic, modeling
Table 1: Causality across different domains and levels of observation.