Figure 1: Nucleofection has the highest gene transfer efficiency compared to other viral and non-viral methods. Live images were captured from stimulated B cells after multiple gene transfers carrying GFP protein. Nucleofection with pMax-GFP plasmid, retroviral MSCV-GFP transduction, Adenovirus-GFP (serotypes 5/11 and 5/35) transduction, and pMax-GFP lipofectamine transfection are shown in the upper row at (40X fluorescent optical zoom). The lower row depicts flow cytometry dot plots for the corresponding gene transfer methods. In each plot, the left axis shows CD19 stain and the right axis GFP signal intensity.