PUBLISHED REFERENCE

L-DOPA: effect on ethanol narcosis and brain biogenic amines in mice. Blum K, Calhoun W, Merritt J, Wallace JE. Nature. 242: 407-409, 1973.

Ethanol narcosis in mice: serotonergic involvement. Blum, K.; Wallace, J.E.; Calhoun, W.; Tabor, R.G. & Eubanks, J.D. Experientia 30:1053-1054, 1974.

Enkephalinase inhibition: Regulation of ethanol intake in mice. Blum K, Wallace JE, Trachtenberg MC. Briggs AH, Dellallo L. Alcohol: 4; 449-456, 1987.

Improvement of inpatient treatment of the alcoholic as a function of neurotransmitter restoration: a pilot study. Blum, K.; Trachtenberg, MC.; Ramsay JC. The International journal of the addictions. 23: 991-998, 1988.

Enkephalinase inhibition and precursor amino acid loading improves inpatient treatment of alcohol and polydrug abusers: double-blind placebo-controlled study of the nutritional adjunct SAAVE. Blum K, Trachtenberg MC, Elliott CE, Dingler ML, Sexton RL, Samuels AI, Cataldie L. Alcohol. 5(6): 481-93. 1988.

Reduction of both drug hunger and withdrawal against advice rate of cocaine abusers in a 30 day inpatient treatment program by the neuronutrient Tropamine. Blum, K.; Allison, D.; Trachtenberg, M.C.; Williams, R.W. & Loeblich, L.A. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 1204-1214. 1988.

Neurodynamics of relapse prevention: a neuronutrient approach to outpatient DUI offenders. Brown, R.J.; Blum, K. & Trachtenberg, M.C. Psychoactive Drugs 22: 173-187, 1990.

Neuronutrient effects on weight loss in carbohydrate bingers; an open clinical trial. Blum K, Trachtenberg MC, Cook DW.  Curr Ther Res.48: 217-233, 1990.

NeuRecover-SATM in the Treatment of Cocaine Withdrawal and Craving: A Pilot Study.Cold, Julie A. Clinical Drug Investigation.12 (1):1-7, 1996.

Enhancement of attention processing by Kantroll in healthy humans: a pilot study. DeFrance, J.F.; Hymel, C.; Trachtenberg, M.C.; Ginsberg, L.D.; Schweitzer, F.C.; Estes, S.; Chen, T.J.; Braverman, E.R.; Cull, J.G. & Blum, K. Clinical Electroencephalography 28: 68-75, 1997.

Clinical evidence for effectiveness of Phencal™ in maintaining weight loss in an open-label, controlled, 2-year study. Blum K, Cull JG, Chen TJH, Swan SG, Holder JM, Wood R, Braverman ER, Bucci LR, Trachenberg MG. Current Therapeutic Research 55(10) 745-763, 1997.

1st Conference on Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Genetic Antecedents and Clinical Pathways. San Francisco, California, USA. November 12-13, 2000. Abstracts. Amino-acid precursor and enkephalinase inhibition therapy: evidence for effectiveness in treatment of “Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) with particular emphasis on eating disorders. Julia Ross. Mol Psychiatry. Feb; 6(1 Suppl 1):S1-8, 2001.

Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy. Chen, T.J.; Blum, K.; Payte, J.T.; Schoolfield, J.; Hopper, D.; Stanford, M. & Braverman, E.R. Medical Hypotheses 63 (3): 538-48, 2004.

Reward deficiency syndrome in obesity: a preliminary cross-sectional trial with a Genotrim variant. Blum K, Chen TJ, Meshkin B, Downs BW, Gordon CA, Blum S, Mengucci JF, Braverman ER, Arcuri V, Varshavskiy M, Deutsch R, Martinez-Pons M. Adv Ther. 23(6):1040-51, 2006.

Gene \Narcotic Attenuation Program attenuates substance use disorder, a clinical subtype of reward deficiency syndrome. Chen, T.J.; Blum, K.; Waite, R.L.; Meshkin, B.; Schoolfield, J.; Downs, B.W.; Braverman, E.E.; Arcuri, V.; Varshavskiy, M,; Blum, S.H.; Mengucci, J.; Reuben, C. & Palomo, T. Advances in Therapy24: 402-414, 2007.

Synaptamine (SG8839),TM An Amino-Acid Enkephalinase Inhibition Nutraceutical Improves Recovery of Alcoholics, A Subtype of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Blum, K.; Chen, T.J.H.; Downs, B.W.; Meshkin, B.; Blum, S.H.; Martinez Pons, M.; Mengucci, J.F.; Waite, R.L.; Arcuri, V.; Varshofsiky, M. & Braverman, E.R. Trends in Applied Sciences Research 2 (3): 132-138, 2007. 

Chromium Picolinate (Crp) A putative Anti-Obesity Nutrient Induces Changes In Body Composition As Function Of The Taq1 Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene. Chen TJH , Blum K, Kaats G, Braverman ER, Eisenberg A, Arcuri V, Varshavsky M, Mengucci JF, Blum AH, Downs BW, Meshkin B, Williams L, Schoolfield J, Whitel L. Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology 11; 161-170,2007.

A short term pilot open label study to evaluate efficacy and safety of LG839, a customized DNA directed nutraceutical in obesity: Exploring Nutrigenomics. Blum K, Chen TJH, Williams L, Chen ALC, Downs WB, Waite RL, Huntington T, Sim S, Prihoda T, Rhoads P, Reinking J, Braverman D, Kerner M, Blum SH, Quirk B, Eric R Braverman ER. Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology 12, page 371-382, 2010.

LG839: anti-obesity effects and polymorphic gene correlates of reward deficiency syndrome. Blum, K.; Chen, A.L.; Chen, T.J.; Rhoades, P.; Prihoda, T.J.; Downs, B.W.; Waite, R.L.; Williams, L.; Braverman, E.R.; Braverman, D.; Arcuri, V.; Kerner, M.; Blum, S.H. & Palomo, T. Advances in Therapy 25 (9): 894-913, 2008.

Dopamine D2 Receptor Taq A1 allele predicts treatment compliance of LG839 in a subset analysis of pilot study in the Netherlands. Blum K, Chen, TJH, Chen ALC, Rhodes P, Prihoda TJ, Downs BW, Bachi D, Bachi M, Blum SH, Williams L, Braverman ER, Kerner M, Waite RL, Quirk B, White L & Reinking J. Gene Therapy Molecular Biology 12, 129-140, 2008.

Putative targeting of Dopamine D2 receptor function in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) by Synaptamine Complex™ Variant (KB220): Clinical trial showing anti-anxiety effects. Blum K, Chen ALC, Chen TJH, Bowirrat A, Waite RL, Kerner M, Blum SH, Downs BW, Savarimuthu S, Rhoades P, Reinking J, Braverman ER, DiNubile N,  Braverman D,  Oscar-Berman M. Gene Therapy Molecular Biology 13, 214-230, 2009.

Sustainable Weight Loss and Muscle Gain Utilizing the Rainbow Diet™: Targeting Noradrenergic and dopaminergic Mechanistic Sites, Hormonal Deficiency Repletion Therapy and Exercise: A case report. Braverman ER, Braverman D, Acrui V, Kerner M, Downs B.W., Blum K. The American Journal of Bariatric Medicine. 25 (2)18-28, 2010.

Acute intravenous synaptamine complex variant KB220™ "normalizes" neurological dysregulation in patients during protracted abstinence from alcohol and opiates as observed using quantitative electroencephalographic and genetic analysis for reward polymorphisms: part 1, pilot study with 2 case reports. Miller DK, Bowirrat A, Manka M, Miller M, Stokes S, Manka D, Allen C, Gant C, Downs BW, Smolen A, Stevens E, Yeldandi S, Blum K.  Postgrad Med. Nov; 122(6):188-213, 2010.

Overcoming qEEG abnormalities and reward gene deficits during protracted abstinence in male psychostimulant and polydrug abusers utilizing putative dopamine D2 agonist therapy: part 2. Blum K, Chen TJ, Morse S, Giordano J, Chen AL, Thompson J, Allen C, Smolen A, Lubar J, Stice E, Downs BW, Waite RL, Madigan MA, Kerner M, Fornari F, Braverman ER. Postgrad. Med. Nov; 122(6):214-26, 2010.

“Dopamine Resistance” in brain reward circuitry as a function of DRD2 gene receptor polymorphisms in RDS: Synaptamine complex variant (KB220) induced “Dopamine Sensitivity” and enhancement of happiness. Blum, K.; Stice, E.; Liu, Y.; Giordano, J.; Morse, S.; Downs, B.W.; Waite, R.L.; Madigan, M.; Braverman, E.R.; Kerner, M.; Oscar-Berman. M.; Miller, D.; Stokes, S.; Gant, C.; Thompson, T.; Allen, C.; Smolen, A., Bowirrat, A. & Gold, M.  XIX World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, September 10-14th. Washington DC, 2011.

Neurotransmitter-precursor-supplement Intervention for Detoxified Heroin Addicts. Chen D, Liu Y, He W, Wang H, Wang Z. Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Med Sci 32(3):422-427, 2012

Early Intervention of Intravenous KB220IV- Neuroadaptagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT)™ Improves Behavioral Outcomes in a Residential Addiction Treatment Program: A Pilot Study Miller M, Chen ALC, Stokes SD, Silverman S, Bowirrat A, Manka M, Manka D Miller DK, Perrine K, Chen TJH, Bailey JA, Downs BW, Waite RL, Madigan MA, Braverman ER, Damle U, Kerner M, Giordano J, Morse S, Oscar-Berman M, Barh D, Blum K. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (in press December issue 2012).

Source: Modified from Blum, et al. Omics-Addiction Research & Therapy (2012). Proceedings of Conference, August 2012 with permission
Table 2: Phase 1 and Phase 2 Clinical Trials of Neuro-nutrient Amino Acid Therapy (NAAT).