Vector Therapeutic gene and clinical setting Reference(s)
  naked nucleic acids transforming growth factor β antisense inhibitor, phase III [29]
Viruses replication-defective (adenoviruses and retroviruses) HSV-tk, phases II, III [30-33]
replication-competent (retroviruses) bacterial CD,  phase I/II A
oncolytic (herpes simplex G207) phase 1b [34]
oncolytic (adenoviruses ONIX-015) phase 1 [35]
Lipid-based nanoparticles cationic liposomes interferon-β, phase I/II [36]
cationic liposomes HSV-tk, phase I/II [37]
cationic liposomes interleukin-12 carried by RD Semliki Forest virus, phase I/II [38]
Stem cells neural stem cells bacterial CD, phase I B
Gene therapy-based clinical trials that were conducted (or are currently ongoing) for the treatment of high grade gliomas. The type of delivery vehicle, therapeutic gene and clinical trial stage are indicated. A:; B: HSV-tk: Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase; CD: Cytosine deaminase; RD: Replication- defective.
Table 1: Representative gene therapy clinical trials involving viral and non-viral vectors towards high grade gliomas.