Strategies for Improvement of  PEG-vectors Examples Properties of Modified Vectors References
Substitution of PEG  with other non-ionic, hydrophilic  polymers                                                   Polysaccharides such as chitosan and dextran PEI-chitosan conjugate showed maximum luciferase activity in spleen followed by heart and brain in the mice after 7 days in comparison with branched PEI 25 kDa [27]
Dextran-spermine conjugate could partially protect pDNA from degradation by nuclease and exhibited optimal gene transfer efficiency in lung [28]
poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) PVP-coated nanoparticles instead of PEG can evade the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon [29]
Polyoxazolines (POZ) PLL-POZ can provide stability against serum compounds and enzymatic digestion as well as thermal stability [30]
N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (PHPMA) The alpha-half-life for bloodstream clearance of PLL or PEI/ DNA complexes could be extended using multivalent PHPMA coating [31]
pH-sensitive shielding of DNA polyplexes or lipoplexes PEG−acetal−MAL (maleimide moiety) The  PEG−acetal−PEI conjugate had a half-life of 3 min at endosomal pH 5.5 and 2 h at physiological pH 7.4, respectively [32]
[ω-2-pyridyldithio poly (ethylene) glycol α-(butyraldehyde) (N(1)-cholesteryloxycarbonyl-1, 2-diaminoethane amidocarboxy) pyridylhydrazone]OPSS-PEG-HZN-Chol micelles OPSS-PEG-HZN-Chol micelles for shielding targeted PEI lipo-polyplexes remain stable at pH 7.4 at 37 °C. At endosomal pH 5.4, OPSS-PEG-HZN-Chol micelles are destroyed within 30 min at 37 °C, while OPSS-PEG-Chol micelles remain stable [33]
Using enzymatically cleavable PEG linkers PEG-peptide-DOPE (PPD) that is cleaved in a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-rich environment A multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) that is modified with PPD showed no hepatotoxicity and innate immune stimulation. Also less accumulation in liver and spleen  was observed PPD-MEND compared to the PEG-unmodified MEND [34]
Producing of reducible PEG nanoparticles PEG-ss-chitosan oligosaccharide-ss-polyethylenimine (PEG-ss-COS-ss-PEI) PEG-ss-COS-ss-PEI copolymers not only had much lower cytotoxicity, but also displayed high transfection efficiency as compared to the control branched PEI 25 kDa [35]
Table 1: Some strategies to improve PEGylated gene delivery systems.