Figure 2: Sub-cellular localization of DNALI1 (red) in respiratory epithelial cells from PCD patients with possible abnormal IDA ultrastructure predicted by TEM. As control, axoneme-specific antibodies against acetylated α-tubulin (green) were used. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). In respiratory epithelial cells from healthy probands (a) DNALI1 (red) localizes predominantly along the entire length of the axonemes. Patients with abnormal IDA ultrastructure (b-e) show the same axonemal DNALI1 content as the healthy controls.