Biosurfactant type Producing Microbial species
Glycolipids
Trehalose mycolates Rhodococcus erythropolis, Arthrobacter paraffineu, Mycobacterium phlei, Nocardia erythropolis
Trehalose esters Mycobacterium fortium, Micromonospora sp., M. smegmatis, M. paraffinicum, Rhodococcus erythropolis
Trehalose mycolates of mono, di, trisaccharide Corynebacterium diptheriae, Mycobacterium smegmati, Arthrobacter sp.
Rhamnolipids Pseudomonas sp.
Sophorolipids Torulopsis bombicola / apicola, Torulopsis petrophilum, Candida sp.
Rubiwettins R1 and RG1 Serratia rubidaea
Diglycosyl digyycerides Lactobacillus fermenti
Schizonellins A and B Schizonella melanogramma
Ustilipids Ustilago maydis and Geotrichum candidum
Amino acid lipids Bacillus sp.
Flocculosin Pseudomonas flocculosa
Phospholipid and Fatty acids
Phospholipids, Fatty acids Candida sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., Acinetobacter sp, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Asperigillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Mycococcus sp., Penicillium sp.
Lipopeptides and lipoproteins
Gramicidins Bacillus brevis
Peptide lipids Bacillus licheniformis
Polymyxin E1 Bacillus polymyxa
Ornithine-lipid Pseudomonas rubescens, Thiobacillus thiooxidans
Viscosin Pseudomonas fluorescens
Serrawettin Serratia marcescens
Cerilipin Glucunobacter cerius
Lysine-lipid Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Surfactin, subtilysin, subsporin Bacillus subtilis
Lichenysin G Bacillus licheniformisIM 1307
Ornithine lipid Pseudomonas sp, Thiobacillus sp, Agrobacterium sp, Gluconobacter sp.
Amphomycin Streptomyces canus
Chlamydocin Diheterospora chlamydosporia
Cyclosporin A Tolypocladium inflatum
Enduracidin A Streptomyces fungicidicus
Globomycin Streptomyces globocacience
Bacillomycin L Bacillus subtilis
Iturin A Bacillus subtilis
Putisolvin I and II Pseudomonas putida
Arthrofactin Arthrobacter
Fengycin Bacillus thuringiensis CMB26
Mycobacillin Bacillus subtilis
Polymeric surfactants
Lipoheteropolysaccharide (Emulsan) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1, Arethrobacter calcoaceticus
Heteropolysaccharide (Biodispersan) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2
Polysaccharide protein Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains
Manno-protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Carbohydrate-protein Candida petrophillum, Endomycopsis lipolytica
Mannan-lipid complex Candida tropicalis
Mannose/ erythrose lipid Shizonella melanogramma , Ustiloga maydis
Carbohydrate-protein-lipid complex Pseudomonas fluorescences, Debaryomyces polymorphus
Liposan Candida lipolytica
Alasan Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
Protein PA Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Particulate biosurfactants
Membrane vesicles Acinetobacter sp. H01-N
Fimbriae, whole cells Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
Table 1: Major types of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms.