Cell source 
Scaffold material 
Major finding 
Mechanics measured 
Experimental values 
Native benchmark 
AF: 
Alginate / chitosan hybrid fibers 
AF cells proliferate and expressed collagen II, construct were nonimmunogenic upon subcutaneous implantation 



AF cells (canine) 
AF cells (bovine) 
Electospun PCL 
AF cells oriented parallel to nanofibers and deposited aligned collagen matrix, resulting in improved tensile mechanics 
Uniaxial tensile modulus 
50 MPa 
80120 MPa 
MSCs (bovine) 
Electrospun PCL 
Bi –lamellar construct replicate the +/ 30° angleply collagen architecture, opposing fiber arrangement enhances tensile response over parallel fiber families via inter lamellar shearing 
Uniaxial tensile modulus 
14.5 MPa 
18 MPa 
NP 
Collagen I 
Gel formation was tailored to replicate mechanical function , dynamic shear 
Torsional shear 
δ= 6.58.5° 
2330° 
IVD: 
PGA (AF) and alginate (NP) 
Formed AFNP composite ECM and increased compressive properties after implantation 
Unconfined compression 
Ha= 50kPa, k = 5x 1014 m^{2}/(Pa s) 
310 MPa 
AF and NP cells (bovine) 