Cell source Scaffold material Major finding Mechanics measured Experimental values Native benchmark
AF: Alginate / chitosan hybrid fibers AF cells proliferate  and expressed collagen II, construct were nonimmunogenic upon subcutaneous implantation      
AF cells (canine)
AF cells (bovine) Electospun PCL AF cells oriented parallel to nanofibers and deposited aligned collagen matrix, resulting in improved tensile mechanics Uniaxial tensile modulus 50 MPa 80-120 MPa
MSCs (bovine) Electrospun PCL Bi –lamellar construct replicate the +/- 30° angle-ply collagen architecture, opposing fiber arrangement enhances tensile response over parallel fiber families via inter lamellar shearing Uniaxial tensile modulus 14.5 MPa 18 MPa
NP Collagen I Gel formation was tailored to replicate mechanical function , dynamic shear Torsional shear δ= 6.5-8.5° 23-30°
IVD: PGA  (AF) and alginate (NP) Formed AF-NP composite ECM and increased compressive properties after implantation Unconfined compression Ha= 50kPa, k = 5x 10-14 m2/(Pa s) 3-10 MPa
AF and NP cells (bovine)
Table 2: Materials (Scaffolds) used in IVD tissue engineering [19,157,158,161].