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Vaccine type

Characteristics / Problems


Subunit vaccines with adjuvants
(Env epitopes+ MF59)

Improved but limited antibody response, homologous protection in animal models


Subunit vaccines with adjuvants
(Tat/Nef epitopes+ AS01B)

Improved responses in some of the animal models


Subunit gp41 vaccines

Elicits only mucosal immunity in animal models


DNA vaccines

Elicits mostly CD4+ T-cell response, improved potency ensured by better DNA delivery methods like electroporation.


Live recombinant vaccines using vectors

Mainly elicits CD8+ response and less CD4+ response, immunogenicity hampered in individuals who are pre-immune to vectors, even repeated doses resulted in limited impact.
When used in combination with gp120 proteins, elicits protection in humans.

Table 2: Types of conventional vaccines against HIV-1.