Mucosally-administred vaccines
Authors Probiotics and vaccines Biological effects
Mercenier et al. 2000 (preclinical studies involving experimental animals) [53] lactic acid bacteria (LAB): Lacto coccuslactis, Streptococcus gordonii and Lactobacillus spp mucosal vaccines for malaria It has been shown that systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses can be elicited in mice through the nasal route using the three LAB systems under study.
Aldovini and Young et al. 1991 (preclinical studies involving experimental animals) [54] L. lactis vaccine with the V2–V4 loop of the HIV virus Induced humoral and cell-mediated immune response is sufficient to provide immunity against an HIV Envexpressing vaccinia virus challenge in mice
Isolauri et al.1995 (in infants) L. casei GG oral rotavirus vaccine Incresed levels of rotavirus-specific serum IgA.
de Vrese et al.2005 (in adults) [55] L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or L. paracaseiCRL431 live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3) Higher serum neutralizing antibodytiters to poliovirus serotypes 1 and 2 (for LGG) and to serotype 3 (CRL431).
Davidson et al.2011 (in adults) [56] L. rhamnosus GG live attenuated nasal influenza vaccine Increased protective hemagglutinin inhibition titers.
Fanget al.2000 ( in adults ) [60] L. rhamnosus GG or L. lactis oral Salmonella typhiTy21a LGG stimulated S. typhi-specific IgA; L. lactis incresed CR3 receptor expression on neutriphilis.
Chattha et al. 2013 ( studies involving experimental animals) [58] Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine Higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell numbers in Att-HRV vaccinated pigs; In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers.
Paineau et al.2008 (in adults) [61] seven different probiotic strains (B. lactisBi-07 and Bl-04, L. acidophilus La-14 and NCFM, L. plantarumLp-115, L. paracaseiLpc-37, and L. salivariusLs-33) oral Vibrio choleravaccination No effect on antigen-specific IgA or IgM; A trend towards higher cholera-specific IgG levels was observed.
Matsuda et al. 2011 (in infants) [62] Bifidobacteriumbreve Ykult (BBG-01) oral inactivated cholera vaccine No significant difference.
Taylor et al. 2006 (in infants) [63] Lactobacillus acidophilus LAVRI-A1 allergen vaccine specific Reduced production of IL-5 and TGF-beta; no significant effects of probiotics on either Type 1(Th1) or Type 2 (h2) T helper cell responses to allergens or other stimuli.
West et al. 2008 (in infants) [64] Lactobacillus F19 (LF19) DTaP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis), polio and Hib-conjugate vaccines No difference in days with infectious symptoms; Days with antibiotic prescriptions were fewer and enhanced anti- diphtheria toxin (D) in the LF19 group;
Vlasovaet al. 2013(experimental animals) [59] Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) attenuated HRV and challenge with virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) Selected probiotics contribute to immunomaturation, regulate immune homeostasis and modulate vaccine and virulent HRV effects, thereby moderating HRV diarrhea.
Parenterally-administred vaccines
Soh et al.2010 (in infants) [65] BifidobacteriumlongumBL999 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LPR mix standard three-dose hepatitis B vaccination schedule Doubled the serum anti-HBsAgIgG concentrations (this difference was not statistically significant).
Olivareset al.2007 (in adults) [66] L. fermentumCECT5716 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine Higher TNF-α, total IgG and IgM, as well as influenza-specific IgA .
Rizzardini et al. 2011 (in adults) [67] B. lactisBB-12 and L. paracasei431 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine Elevated influenza-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 levels (B. lactisBB-12); influenza-specific salivary IgA responses (both probiotics).
Mullie et al.2004 (in infants) [68] Streptococcus thermophiles and B. breve Pentacoq® vaccination diphtheria, tetanus, polio, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), and pertussis vaccines Increased poliovirus-specific IgA levels in the feces.
Youngster et al. 2011 (in infants) [22] Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356, Bifido bacterium bifidum DSMZ20082, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC157078 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC15697 mumps, measles, rubella and varicella vaccine (MMRV) No significant difference in protective antibody titres to each individual vaccine component.
Prenatal treatment
Kukkonen et al.2006 [69] Probiotic combination (LGG, L. rhamnosusLC705, B. breveBbi99, and Propionibacteriumfreudenreichii) to mothers in the last four weeks until delivery and to their infants (together with a prebiotic, galacto-oligosaccharides) for the first six months Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccines Higher serum levels of Hib-specific IgG in infants.
Licciardi et al.2013 [70] L. rhamnosus GG(LGG) tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines Reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV, but not total IgG levels.
Table 1: Summary of probiotics adjuvants effects.