Vaccines against Routes of immunization Active component(s) Doses Names of Licensed products (manufacturers) Target population
(age of vaccinees)
Killed whole-cell/recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit vaccine (WC/rBS) Oral Mixture of 1011 heat-killed or formalin-killed. choleraeO1 of classical and El Tor biotypes and Inaba and Ogawa serotypes +1 mg CT B subunit 2 Dukoral™(Crucell/SBL). Children, adult [10,11]
CVD 103- HgR recombinant live attenuated vaccine Oral A ∆ctxA derivative of classical Inaba strain V. cholera 569B (CVD 103) and an Hg++ resistance gene introduced into the Hemolysin A locus of the chromosome. 108–109cfu 1 Berna, Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute as Orachol (Europe), or Mutacol (North America)* Children, adult [13]
Killed whole cell (WC) bivalent vaccine Oral Inactivated V. cholerae bacteria (Same O1composition as above + 5 X 1010 formalin-killed O139 bacteria) 2 Shancol (in India) mORC-Vax (in Vietnam) Children, adult [15]
Live attenuated Ty21a Oral Vi negative mutantstrain of
S. Typhi
3 Vivotif (Berna Biotech) Children>2yr, adults [22,23]
Vi polysaccharide Parenteral Purified Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) 1 Typhim Vi (Sanofi Pasteur)Typherix (GSK) TypBar (Bharat Biotech); Shantyph
(Shantha Biotech);Typho-Vi (BioMed)
Children>2yr, adults [24,25]
Conjugate vaccine
Parenteral Vi antigen is coupled to tetanus toxoid protein 2 Peda-typhTM,(BioMed) Children < 2 yr  
Multivalent combination vaccines Parenteral Combined Vi CPS and inactivated hepatitis A virus grown in human diploid cells and adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. 2 HepatyrixTM, (GSK); ViatimTM, (Aventis Pasteur) adults and adolescents >15 yrs [36]
Rotavirus diarrhea
Pentavalent human-bovine reassortant WC3 vaccine Oral Bovine WC 3 reassortant viruses carrying G1, G2, G3 andG4 of P(8) RNA segment of human rotavirus 3 RotaTeq™(Merck Vaccines, USA) Young infants [50]
Monovalent RIX-4414 human rotavirus strain Oral A G1 P [8] rotavirus isolated from a human infant that evoked neutralizing antibodies to rotaviruses of G types 1-4. 2 Rotarix™(GSK Biologicals) Young infants [53]
Table 1: Licensed vaccines against common enteric diseases of public health importance (adapted from reference 3). *Manufacturing was discontinued after 2004.