Steps Modules Key stakeholders Area of science Key approaches for solution
Production Research and development Academia, research institutions and manufacturers Biology and vaccinology Basic research, push and pull for vaccine industries and scientists
Licensure Pharmaceutical approval Manufacturers and PMDA (regulatory authorities) Regulatory Science Epidemiology, clinical trials
Routine scheduling Funding, recommendation and compensation programs National diet and MHLW Politics Lobbying, legitimacy, ethics, fairness
Implementation Vaccination provision Municipalities and medical professionals Logistics Registry of vaccination history, simultaneous inoculation, multi-vaccine package
Assurance Risk management, public acceptance, relief compensation provision Anti-vaccine activists, patient groups, mass and social media, MHLW Surveillance, education, communication Causal investigation and compensation of AEFI, Social norm, risk communication strategy, educational materials
Table 3: Logical steps and stakeholders for vaccine access improvement.