Code

Study site

country

Climate

Reference

Objective

Results and remark

The Scientific fact of sulphur cycle

1

Pantnagar

India

Sub temperate

Seth et al. [17]

Finding best form of composting

Results of pot study established that aerobic composting of sulphinated pressmud produced maximum yield and nutrient up take.

2

Kalyani

India

Sub tropical

Acharya et al. [18]

Identification of best cropping sequence

Study results supported application of sulphur cycle, although the researchers did not visualize this scientific fact in justifying their yield results.

3

Estanbul

Turkey

Mediterranean

Cimrin et. al. [12]

Nutrient uptake for plant growth and yield

Field study results showed response of S uptake in promoting growth and yield.

5

Lab study

France

-

Unsal and Sonay [22]

Study on characteristics of humic acid.

Study reported carbon content C value ranging close to C value of soil. N content of sewage sludge and brewery sludge were found much higher than others’. No attempt on evaluation of S reveals no visualization of working of sulphur cycle.

6

Tolosan

France

Lab study

Eyheraguibel et al. [13]

To study effect of HLS on growth of corn.

Transformed and enhanced lignocelluloses in liquid humic like substance (HLS) on maize under hydroponic condition revealed that germination percentage was not influenced, but increased elongation of roots, development of lateral roots, shoot and leaf biomass. However researchers could not scientifically justify the response. Uptake of sulphate improved build up of tissues that proved the role of S uptake under the experimental condition.

7

France

France

Field study

Masciandra et al. [23]

Mineralisation and mineral nutrition interaction

 Soil productivity was increased by mineral nutrient derived from organic matter mineralization.

Implications of sulphur cycle

8

Northern China

China

Temperate

Liping et al, [43]

Water saving in cultivation of rice.

In China 8000 kg/ha with 900 mm yield could save 40-70% water without any yield loss by applying alternate wet and dry situation under wet land condition. In upland sites aerobic rice yielded 2400-3600 kg/ha using 750-1100 mm total water. Innovative application of sulphur cycle was not visualized.

9

Northern China

China

Temperate

Yang et al. [25]

Productivity of aerobic rice varieties.

Water productivity of aerobic rice varieties was higher under aerobic condition or at par with non aerobic under flooded condition. No revealance of application of sulphur cycle.

10

Near Beijing

China

Aerobic rice.

Zhang et al. [28]

Optimization of nutrient management.

No effect of AWDT on grain yield was found, but, responded to increase in application of N rate. Timing of fertilizer application should be adjusted to balance crop demand before and after antheses Mg was suspected to be cause of low rice yield under aerobic condition. No monitoring of S reveals no visualization of scientific fact of sulphur cycle.

11

Ludhiana

India

Semi Arid climate

Yadav et al.  [3,4]

Water saving versus yield of paddy

Flooded rice produced maximum yield. AWDT resulted in yield loss/ penalty (reduction in yield.).At 70kPa yield loss was 25 %. Flooding for 20 days at panicle initiation and flowering produced maximum yield under AWDT. No monitoring of S proved no visualization of working of sulphur cycle in paddy field.

12

Mathura

India

Semi arid

Yadav et al. [6]

Poisoning in well water by H2S

H2S poisoning in shallow well containing 150 cm water caused death of three young men who entered the well for cleaning and deepening of well.

13

Agra

India

Semi arid

Yadav and Srivastav [7]

Residue management for nutrient supplementation.

Incorporation of residue and convening aerobic decomposition in the field is highly useful in supplementing S requirement of crops.

14

Ludhiana

India

Semi arid

Brar et al. [24]

Residue management in paddy wheat cropping system

Total incorporation of paddy residue in field and its aerobic decomposition produced sulphate that was used by the wheat crop. However, applicability of sulphur cycle was not visible in the experimental study.

15

Sanjang plain

China

Wetland ecosystem

Jingshuan and Xinhua  [16]

Sulphur accumulation in wetland ecosystem

Sulphur accumulates in wetland ecosystem that may cause acidity in lake due to mixing of H2Sin bottom layer of lake water.

Decomposition of slurry drawn from waste water stream and other wastes for nutrient conversion

16

Michigan

USA

Temperate

Glysson et al. [5]

Water processing

Industrialized composting of solid waste on fast and promoted aerobic decomposition was carried out. Nutrient content not of S was not seen important that reveals no visualization of perception of sulphur cycle application in the process development.

17

Tigard,Oregon

USA

Ostara’s nutrient recovery system

John [19]

Ostaras pearl nutrient recovery system

Ostara’s pearl nutrient recovery system which converts waste in to small round palletsrich in phosphorus, magnesium and nitrogen slow releases nutrients. Crystal green is sold to Golf course to nurture turfs and nurseries for greening ornamental plants and shrubs. The organic waste an aerobically digested N,P,K and Mg are extracted to make use of. Sulphur cycle was not visualized.

18

Harbin

China

Laboratory

Zhao and Ding [20]

Nutrient recovery from solid wastes

Nitrogen and phosphorus recovered from the waste stream were converted in the form of straiten (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP). Nutrient laden waste water included urine, land fill leachate, industrial waste water and side stream in waste water treatment plant etc. Several types of struvite reactors were introduced and compared. The study did not visualize functioning of sulphur cycle.

19

Wageningen

Netherlands

Anaerobic decomposition.

Vanlier et al., 2011 [15]

Pre treatment of heavy waste laden stream water use

Anaerobic pre treatment of high concentration of N, P, and K were extracted and applied directly to the field crops. Various options of anaerobic pretreatment plant embedded in centralized or decentralized pretreatment use this concept. No visualization of application of sulphur cycle was observed.

Application of green manuring in paddy-wheat cropping system

20

Aligarh

India

Sub tropical

Singh et al., 1977 [26]

Role of green manuring for increasing yield

Organic fertilizers such as FYM (farm yard manure), vermin composting and green manuring substituted to 25% of N, P, and K requirement to produce maximum yield of rice wheat cropping system. Application of organic and inorganic manure produced maximum yield and maintained high nutrient status of soil.

21

Nanjing

China

Semiarid

Ping et al. [25]

Interaction of organic and inorganic nutrients

Returning green manuring and straw to soil enlarged the influence of inorganic nitrogen. The rice yield increased when application of organic and inorganic nitrogen was incorporated.

22

Ludhiana

India

Semi arid

Barr et al. [24]

Residue management in paddy wheat cropping system

Total incorporation of paddy residue in field and aerobic decomposition produced maximum yield of wheat.

23

Hyderabad

India

Semiarid

DRR, [27]

Rice cultivation technology portal

Directorate of Rice Research released a knowledge portal that flatly recommends green manuring for rice crop cultivation. No concept of working of sulphur cycle persisted in the portal

24

Islamabad

Pakistan

Semi arid

Shah et al. [29]

Organic and inorganic nutrient in agriculture

Green manuring was found beneficial to paddy. No knowledge of sulphur cycle was revealed in the study.

25

California

USA

California climate

Lauren et al. [30]

Release of methane from green manuring.

With green manuring mixing in wheat straw decomposition under the anaerobic condition prepone release of methane to atmosphere by 20-25 days. The flux of methane release also increased. However, no evidence of application f sulphur cycle was found in the study.

Water conservation in paddy cultivation

26

Wageningen

Netherland

Position report

Chapagain and Hoestra [31]

Water use foot prints in rice

Estimated carbon foot print from production to consumption of rice. Application of scientific fact of sulphur cycle will improve water productivity and use of input.

27

Northern China

China

Model study

 

 

 

Irrigation under limited water supply.

Irrigation should be applied at jointing stage then at heading stage. Quadratic polynomial function was applicable to describe water production function.

 Sulphur cycle and Arsenic problem

28

Bangkok

Regions affected by Arsenic in irrigation water.

Status report

FAO,SAP, [21]

Problems of arsenic in Bangla Desh and surrounding regions are compiled in the report.

Detailed elaboration of problem of arsenic in south East Asia and Pacific region is reported. The method of getting rid from the As is given as crop diversification, cropping system that uses less water, development crops and varieties those rsistant to As uptake are presented. However, no appearance of any aspect of sulphur cycle was found. In the report.

29

Review

Different parts of world

Status of scientific knowledge on As uptake by plants.

Meharg, [33]

Total uptake mechanism of organic As.

It could not be concluded about the total mechanism of uptake of organic As.

30

Review

Different part of the World

Rate of organic As up take

Abedin
et al., 2002 [34]

Rate of uptake of organic As.

Rate of organic uptake of As was slower than inorganicAs. Not thought found working of sulphur cycle.

Raised bed cultivation (RBC)

31

North China

China

Water use vs yield of wheat in RBC

Quanqi et al., [35]

Irrigation of wheat by less water.

 Furrow planting increased WUE, but raised bed planting had potential to increase yield but increase in WUE was in consistent. No reference of working of sulphur cycle.

32

Indonesia

Indonesia

Crop diversification through RBC.

Donald et al. [39]

Possibility of crop diversification in low land rice areas

RBC enabled crop diversification in the low land rice in Indonesia. No evidence on application of sulphur cycle.

33

Arha taluk,Chennai

India

Role of raised bed on enhancing yield

Narsimhamurthy [37]

Unexpected yield of potato from raised bed

Potato yield of 31.25 tones/ha was harvested against average yield of 20 tones /ha. RBC and drip irrigation produced un expected yield of potato. No knowledge of sulphur cycle visuslised.

34

Modipuram

India

Role of conservation farming

Jat et al. [36]

Raised bed cultivation alone with other conservation agriculture practices.

He considered the present conservation practices are half way its optimization There is scope to enhance crop yields by better scientific management practices. However no visualization of working of sulphur cycle.

35

 Two sites in Bangala Desh and one site in Nepal

Bangla Desh and Nepal

Role of RBC on crop diversification

Lauren et al. [41]

Applicability of raised bed in crop diversification.

It was possible to harvest high yield of wheat from the RBC from two sites in Bangla Desh. The yield was adversely affected by RBC in Nepal. Authors did not interprete scientific reason for adverse performance of RBC in Nepal. There was no revealance of application of sulphur cycle.

36

Mexico CIMMIT

Mexico

Raised bed for crop cultivation under wet and dry condition.

Kenneth, [40]

Different sizes of raised bed found suitable for crop production under dry or water logged condition.

Raised beds were found suitable for crop cultivation in different adverse climatic condition. Crop diversification has been the main concern in the research.

Table 1: Situation of scientific fact of sulphur cycle in waste water stream recovered materials and other input use in agriculture and protection of environment.