Subjects:
total (n);
(n) experimental,
(n) control

Experimental intervention

Total yoga (hours)

Control Intervention

Time of long-term follow-up measurements
(if applicable)

Pain
outcome measure

Functional Disability outcome measure

Cox (2010)
[20]

20; 10 yoga, 10 control

12 weeks,
75 min/week

15

Written advice

N/A

Aberdeen back pain scale

RMDQ 24 point

Galantino (2004) [19]

22; 11 yoga, 11 control

6 weeks,
120 min/week

12

No treatment

N/A

N/A

ODI

Saper (2009)
[15]

30; 15 yoga, 15 control

12 weeks,
75 min/week

15

Educational book, routine medical care

14 weeks

0-10 pain scale

Modified RMDQ (23 item)

Sherman (2005) [17]

101; 36 yoga, 30 book,
35 exercise

12 weeks, 75min/week

15

1 group self care book; 1 group exercise

14 weeks

0-10 “bothersomeness” of pain scale

RMDQ 24 point

Tekur (2008)
[16]

80; 40 yoga, 40 control

1 week intensive,
2 hours physical yoga practice/day

14

Conventional exercise

N/A

ODI section 1

ODI

Williams K (2009) [14]

90; 43 yoga, 47 control

24 weeks,
180 min/week

72

Standard medical care

24 weeks

VAS

ODI

Williams KA (2005) [18]

60; 30 yoga, 30 control

16 weeks, 90min/week

24

Educational pamphlets

12 weeks

VAS

PDI

RMDQ: Roland and Morris Disability Scale Questionnaire; ODI: Oswestry Disability Index; PDI: Pain Disability Index; VAS: Visual Analog Scale
Table 1: Characteristics of the 7 studies examining the effects of yoga on low back pain or functional disability.