Change in RMDQ Change in LBPS  
Variable Greater improvement in: β (95% CI) p Greater improvement in: β (95% CI) p
U.S. vs. foreign born Foreign born 5.6 (8.6, 2.6) <.001 N/a   0.20
> High School ¬†¬†Education n/a   0.50 College education -1.2 (-0.3, -2.2) 0.01
Missed work No missed work 2.7 (5.4, -0.1) 0.054 N/a   0.12
LBP >1 year n/a   0.58 LBP duration < 1 year 1.1 (2.2, 0.0) 0.04
SF-36 PCS score Worse physical health 0.3 (0.5, 0.1) 0.02 Worse physical health 0.1 (0.2, 0.0) 0.02
Table 4: Linear regression of baseline characteristics and change in primary outcome measures.