Figure 1: Proposed pathway of alcohol- and tobacco-mediated HIV-1 replication, response to HAART, and HAART toxicity. Chronic mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption and tobacco use increase HIV-1 replication, decrease response to HAART, and increase HAART toxicity through CYP systems. Although HIV-1 replication, response to HAART and HAART toxicity are independently affected by alcohol, tobacco, or HAART, their effects are also interdependent. An increase in HIV-1 replication, decrease in response to HAART, and increase in HAART/metabolite toxicity can increase neuroAIDS and HAND. In this case, HAART regimens include NNRTIs and PIs.