Adapted from Department of Plant Pathology of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Figure 1: “The Disease Triangle”: Infectious Disease occurs only in the presence of a pathogen with its virulence factors and inoculum effect, a susceptible host via immune modulation and behavioral changes, and a conducive environment -- as has resulted with global climate change. Modified and used by permission from the University of Wisconsin, Department of Plant Pathology (Dr. Caitilyn Allen).