Human capital


Percentage of households having reductions in nutrition

Percentage of households having loss of life, injury or new diseases

Inverse of Life Expectancy

Percentage of households having public safety problems from forest/wild fire


Average food insufficient months

Inverse of crop diversification index

Knowledge and Skills

Inverse of education index

Percentage of households do not having electronic appliances at home

Percentage of households where a family member has not taken any kind of vocational training

Natural capital



Inverse of Land Productivity Index

Percentage of households having land degradation/crop loss or reduction in crop production by climate related extremes


Percentage of households using only Forest-based energy for cooking purpose

Average time to fetch firewood


Percentage of households that collect water directly from river, streams, pond

Percentage of households that do not have daily water supply

Average time to fetch water

Inverse of water storage index

Climate Variability and
Natural Disasters

Average number of flood, drought and avalanches during last 10 years

Mean standard deviation of daily mean average maximum and minimum temperature by month

Mean standard deviation of daily precipitation by month

Social capital


Average family member in a households

Percent of households where head of household has not attended school

Network and Relationship

Percentage of households received helps from their social networks to cope up with climate change

Percentage households had to receive help through social networks

Percent of households that have not gone to local government for any kind of assistance in past 12 months

Percent of respondents who have not voted in election

Financial capital


Inverse of Average land holding index

Inverse of average agriculture livelihood diversification index


Inverse of income index

Percentage of households reported to have some sort of financial crisis

Percent of households who do not have access to financial services to any financial institution

Percent of households who do not have any family members working outside the village at relatively developed place

Physical capital

Road and Communication

Average time to reach nearest vehicle station

Average time to reach nearest communication centre

Daily needs

Percentage of households reported loss from dairy and livestock production

Percentage of households having losses to housing or property

Percentage of households reported their natural water source is depleting

Table 2: Climate change effect indicators in Livelihood Effect Index (LEI).