Name of species Significance with respect to climate change
Ficusspecies Flowering and generation of new leaves indicates near rainfall onset.
Butterfly Appearance of many butterflies indicate early rainfall onset and also gives a prospect of good season
Corn field ant, Fanghmir (Lasius alienus) When there are a number of ants moving along a path carrying their food items with them, a heavy rain is expected on the same day, or within one or two days.
Common Frog, Uchang (Rana temporaria): If the frogs croak in a water body in the afternoon until sunset, rain will be coming soon, even during winter and spring season.
Sukarvar ribadri,rahishanicharjaye,barsabinanajaya (proverb) It means that if clouds form on Friday and remain till Saturday then they will not go without rain, such indications predict rains.
Nada tankan,baladbikavan.matbajetu,adhesaawan (proverb) It means that in mid monsoon if South east wind blow then farmer of marwar region cries because it indicates famine in the particular region
Height of bird’s nest Floods are predicted from the height of bird’s nests near rivers.
Moths Moths decreasing numbers can predict drought.
Position of the sun or the cry of a specific bird on trees near rivers Indicators such as the position of the sun or the cry of a specific bird on trees near rivers help people to predict the onset of the rainy season.
Bamboo Partridge, Vahlah(Bambusicola fytchii): If male bamboo partridges roar frequently during spring and summer in the morning after sunrise, rain is expected in the immediate future. Similarly, when it rains in the morning, the roaring of the bamboo partridge at this time indicates that the rain will soon stop for that day in that location.
Field cricket, Perhpawng(Gryllus pensylvanicus); If a cricket brings new soil particles out of its hole during the dry season, it is thought that rain is coming soon (Figure 6). If the same activity occurs during the rainy season, a heavy rain is expected during the season.
Winged termite, Phingphihlip (Reticulitermes sp.) When these insects come out of the soil in a group after a rainfall occurs, it is believed that rain will not come again for some time. (If there was no rain in the previous day or week but the insects are coming out of the soil, rain is expected to come soon.
Bird/Hen and cock, Arpui/arpa[ (Circuscyaneus) ] If local domestic chickens search for food even during the rain, it is commonly thought that the rain will last for the whole day. But if the birds stop searching for food when it is raining and take shelter (in the morning or afternoon), the rain is expected to cease soon and to be minimal.
Location, pattern of clouds (blackish colour), Chhumdum: When the clouds are thick and black in colour, and are arranged perpendicular to the orbit of the sun in the morning, it is said that rain is approaching.
A person having sciatica problem Nowadays, a patient suffering from sciatica is said to be able to foretell weather phenomena according to their body temperature and the pain in the affected body part (One man, Mr. Ngawihkhonang (L) (1945- 2006) was known to forecast weather (humidity, temperature and rainfall) three or four days ahead, through the temperature of his body part (foot, leg, ear or forehead) affected by sciatica. The people of Ngailzawl village were dependent on his weather forecasting ability.
Bug species (brown in colour, medium side, living both at the edge of the river and in the forest according to the weather conditions), Tiauhmi(consumed as curry) If this particular bug is found under a stone on the bank of the river after the monsoon season, it is said that the autumn season is over and winter is beginning. If this bug species is found in the forest during summer, it is expected that rainfall and flooding are about to begin.
Dried ripen chilli (Solanum frutescence) and dried tobacco leaves (Hmarcharep) If dried chillies become moist except during the rainy season, it indicates high humidity and imminent rain.
Flowering pattern of peach species, Theite par. (Prunus sp.): If peach or plum flowers grow from the basal region to the terminal of the tree in flowering season, it is predicted that there will be a good rain and higher crop production than in other years. This indicator has been accurate until today.
Soil moisture and ground water level During the spring and summer seasons, the villagers might turn over any stone or border stone near a river or a hillside in an open space and or clearing within the tree canopy. If the soil under the rock or under the surface is moist it is thought that summer rain is approaching.
Water bubble formation, Puakkau(Paihtedialect): If water bubbles forms at any place on the surface of a flowing or stagnant water body, particularly during a morning rain shower, it is thought that the rain will last for whole day. My experience confirmed that this indicator was applicable.
Cloud colour, time, direction and location of appearance in the sky: If reddish colour cloud is seen at sunset one western horizon (Figure 6), rain is predicted to come within two to four days. If there is thick cloud toward the south or north, the rain will be more on that side within the region. If the sky is full of reddish coloured clouds appearing after a long rainfall, it is a sign that the rain will not come again in that particular season.
General Duration of hot days If the first 10-15 of the month May-June are very hot a good rainfall is predicted.
Dragon fly swarm If Dragon fly swarm in a large group over water surface a dry weather is predicted, if they swarm over open dry lands then early rainfall is predicted.
Centipedes If centipedes emerge from their holes carrying their eggs in swarms an early rainfall is predicted.
Sun and Moon Presence of visible spectrum with a greater diameter around the sun than around the moon indicates rainfall after a day or two.
Annexure: List of traditional indicators for climate change and use of traditional knowledge in daily life.