Figure 2: Conceptual framework of processes and interactions between terrestrial ecosystems and climate. Arrows connect system components. Red arrows indicate that an increase (decrease) of a process/state will increase (decrease) another process/state. Green arrows imply the reverse response. Arrows with solid lines refer to local interactions, and dashed arrows to larger scale (regional, global) interactions. Circles refer to states, squares to fluxes/processes, triangles to responses and diamonds to external drivers. Processes are assumed to act at a comparable spatial and temporal scale. T: temperature, GPP: gross primary production, NEE: net ecosystem exchange, TER: total ecosystem respiration, LAI: leaf area index, Fc: forest cover, α: albedo, gs: stomatal conductance, gc: canopy conductance, ET: evapotranspiration,P: precipitation, θ: soil moisture.