Figure 5: Pro- and anti-inflammatory expression of receptor markers. In (A, B, C and D) the expression of COX-2, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 activity decreased in the MSC/rhBMP-2 treatments when compared with the controls. In (E): Representative scheme of the pathways involved in the COX-2 and IL-8 signaling. Statistical differences were obtained by analysis of variance (*** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, and * p< 0.05).