Figure 1: Harnessing cellular reprogramming for biomedical applications. Schematic representation of cell reprogramming of patientderived fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) using a combination of transcription factors (TFs) and specific media conditions. iPSCs can be further differentiated to all three germ layers: mesoderm (exemplified here by cardiac cells), endoderm (thyroid cells) and ectoderm (neurons), whereas multipotent iNSCs can be differentiated into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Pre-differentiated cells can be either transplanted into patients to treat disease or study the pathology in the cell culture dish under standardized conditions.