Cytokines/ Chemical Compounds Possible mechanism Reference
Norepinephrine Wnt signaling pathway: Protein kinase C (PKC) activated, stimulates a G reduce the transient outward K+ current [3]
FGFs, BMP Wnt extra cellular factors: heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The polysaccharide chains of heparan sulfate bind to FGFs, Wnts and BMPs [3]
Hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) 1.      Ras-ERK1/2      MAPK:      mitogenic and morphogenic
2.   PI3K/Akt: mitogenic and antiapoptotic
3.   p38 MAPK:     blocking   cells     in     theG0-G1 phase
Transforming growth factor-β Gadd45b promote activated by TGF-β through the action of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 [9]
OSM gp130  induces  gene-expression,  followed  byparacrine secretion [7]
Epidermal growth factor(EGF) Dexamethasone Lead to ERK1/2 phosphorylation [10]
Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) Induction of suppressor leukocytes: iNOS,Tcell CD3-δ [11]
Stromal derived Ligand forthe chemokine receptor CXCR4. CXCR4-mediated   signaling regulates cell [12]
factor-1a (SDF-1a) migration and apoptosis  
Retinoic acid Acting through RARγ up-regulation of hepaticCB1R mediates the auto induction of CB1R expression by endo cannabinoids [13]
Sodium butyrate 1.      Promotes protein acetylation at targets : H3K9
2.      Accelerates promoter DNA demethylation, expression of pluripotency-associatedgenes POU5F1/OCT4 and DPPA2
Dimethyl sulfoxide Decreases membrane   thickening, inducing apoptosis and differentiation [15]
Table 1: Possible Mechanism of cytokines/ chemical compounds.