Growth/signaling f. Molecular type Function References
VEGF Cytokine Initiator of vessel remodeling and repair [72,157,158]
bFGF Heparin-binding protein Initiates proliferation of EC and SMCs [72,159]
HGF Mitogen Stimulates growth of ECs [160]
PDGF Mitogen Recruits SMCs, promotes maturation of the blood vessel [72,161,162]
Angiopoietin-1 Growth factor Promotes blood vessel maturation, regulates homeostasis [163]
Table 4: Angiogenic growth factors involved in vasculogenesis with a brief description of their essential roles in the process. The signaling factors are arranged in chronological order according to their function.