Nature of the study; disease model Cells used Functional Assessment Notes References
Bladder replacement In vitro study Human cultured unmodified ASCs Not available ASCs formed matrix graft Rousseau et al. [32]
Normal rabbits Autologous cultured ASCs were seeded on bladder acellular matrix. Cystography. Normal bladder capacity was acquired . Exogenous scaffold was used. Zhu eta al. [40]
Bladder voiding dysfunction BOO Cultured Human ASCs injected into rat bladder wall UDS. Decrease bladder overactivity  (frequency and  irregularity of contractions ) with increase in bladder voiding pressure.   Song et al. [47]
Autologous cultured ASCs and muscle precursor cells (MPCs) injected into rat bladder. UDS. Micturiting pressure (maximum and threshold) and voided volumes increased.   Tremp et al. [48]
Diabetes Mellitus Autologous cultured ASCs injected in bladder wall  or tail vein of diabetic type II rats. UDS . It showed Diabetic Voiding dysfunction improvement  in 40-60 %. Improvement with local (bladder) injection is more effective than  systemic (tail vein) injection Zhang  et al. [49]
Hyperlipidemia Autologous cultured ASCs injected into bladder or tail vein of  hyperlipdemic rat Improved micturition frequency and voided volumes Improvement with direct( bladder) injection is more efficient than systemic (tail vein) injection Huang et al. [46]
Cryo-injury Human ASCs differentiated into SMCs and injected into cryo-injured bladder wall of mice. Not available There was an Increase in the ASMA positive area of injured Bladder. The injected labeled cells were detected in vivo. Sakuma et al. [38]
Urethral replacement Normal rabbits Autologous cultured ASCs and  urothelial -differentiated  ASCs  were seeded on bladder acellular matrix. Urethrography.  It revealed restoration of urethral continuity with  only urotheklial-differentiated cell seeded constructs BrdU-labeled cells survived in vivo transplantation. Li et al. [39]
Normal canine  model Autologous SMC- differentiated ASCs and  oral epithelial cells  were seeded on PGA Urethrography. It showed slight strictures at the site of implantation   The use of bioreactor improved the characters and outcome of engineered graft Fu et al. [52]
Urinary incontinence Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) -rat model Autologous cultured ASCs UDS with different measures including  ALPP, RUPR and bladder capacity SUI  was mostly  induced by vaginal balloon dilation and bilateral
  Lin et al. [59]
Unmodified ASCs and ASCs differentiated  into myoblasts Fu et al. [60]
Cultured  ASCs  with PLGA microbeads SUI was induced by urethrolysis. Zheng et al. [61]
Autologous cultured ASCs with PLGA or NGF or both SUI was induced by bilateral pudendal nerve transection  Zhao et al. [62]
Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence –clinical trial 11 patients received autologous ASCs with and without fat. Frequency and amount of incontinence, daily leakage volume, UDS and ICIQ-SF The cells were injected endoscopically into the region of external urethral sphincter and submuocal space. Gotoh et al. [63]
Tunica Albuginea (TA) reconstruction Peyronie's disease (PD) Human ASCs injected in TA during acute phase of PD Measurement of  Intracavernous pressure (ICP)   Castiglione  et al. [65]
Normal rats Syngeneic cultured ASCs seeded onto SIS   Ma et al. [67]
Erectile dysfunction Cavernous Nerve crush injury Autologous Stromal vascular fraction Measurement of  Intracavernous pressure (ICP) IC injection was done immediately and after 4 weeks. Qiu et al. [73]
Cultured Human ASCs with NGF-incorporated hydrogel   Kim et al. [77]
Cultured  ASCs and  BDNF with or without  udenafil   Jeong et al. [78]
Cultured Human ASCs Delivered by  IC injection or periprostatic implantation You et al. [82]
CN resection Cultured allogenic ASCs seeded on fat matrix Variable but substantial  improvement of erectile function Lin et al. [79]
Cultured ASCs with autologous  saphenous vein   Ying et al. [80]
Diabetes mellitus Autologous cultured ASCs Type II DM rats Garcia et al. [75]
Stromal vascular fraction Type I DM mice Ryu et al. [67]
Radiation injury Autologous cultured ASCs Delivered by tail injection Qiu et al. [84]
Normal rats Autologous ASCs differentiated into SMC and EC Not available The labeled implanted cells survived for 2months after implantation. Orabi et al. [83]
Abbreviations: BOO: Bladder outlet obstruction; SMC: Smooth muscle cells ; ASMA : Smooth muscle α-actin ; PGA: Poly-Glycolic acid PLGA: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) ; NGF: Nerve growth factor ICIQ-SF : The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) UDS: Urodynamic study; ALPP : Abdominal leak point pressure; RUPP : Retrograde urethral perfusion pressure SIS: Small intestinal submucosa; EC: Endothelial cells; BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Table 1: Different applications, studies and clinical trials of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ASCs) in therapy of lower genitourinary dysfunction.