Figure 1: Syngeneic AT-MSCs prolongs survival of vascularized composite allotransplants (VCA) more than allogeneic AT-MSCs. The experimental model was rat osteomyocutaneous flap allotransplantation from BN rat to LEW rat as described in [76]. The immunosuppression regimen included antilymphocyte serum at post-operation day (POD) -1, 10, cyclosporine 16 mg/kg from day 0-10, in addition to AT-MSCs at POD 1. It was demonstrated that donor-specific tolerance developed in the recipients with long-term surviving VCA. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the median survival time for syngeneic and allogeneic AT-MSC groups was >150 and 51 days, respectively.