Superior Inferior Parameterin comparison Reference
Basic Properties (in vitro)
AT- BM- MSC frequency [8,9]
AT- BM- metabolic activity [8]
AF- BM- proliferation [10]
WJ AT proliferation [23]
UC- PL- proliferation [21]
WJ- BM- proliferation [24]
PL- UC- adhesion capability [21]
AF- WJ- adhesion capability [22]
UC- PL- mass transport and cell migration [21]
Differentiation (in vitro)
BM- WJ- osteogenesis [24]
BM- AT- osteogenesis, chondrogenesis [13,26,27]
BM- PB- osteogenesis, adipogenesis [29]
BM-, AT- CB-, PL- adipogenesis [11,30]
PB- BM- chondrogenesis [29]
BM (fetal and adult) L (fetal), PL- chondrogeneisis [31]
AF- BM- hepatocyte differentiation [17]
I- BM- islet differentation [36]
UC-PSC BM- islet differentation [38]
BM- AT- islet differentation [37]
AF- BM- neural stem cell differentiation [39]
WJ- BM- or AT- neural progenitor cell differentiation [40]
AT- BM- neural stem cell differentiation [42]
UC- BM- endothelial differentiation [43]
AT- BM- sinus-like cell differentiation [44]
SM- AT-, or BM- myogenesis (rat) [45]
AT- BM- myogenesis (human) [46]
Immunomodulatory (in vitro)
AT- BM- suppressing -CD3/CD28 induced PBMC proliferation  [8]
AT- BM- suppressing dendritic cell differentiation [48]
AT- BM- suppressing mitogen-stimulated Ig production [13]
H-, L- OE- BM- suppressing T cell activation [49]
OE- BM- suppressing NK cell activation [49]
OE-, L- (primed) BM- (primed) suppressing B cell activation [49]
CB, WJ-, BM- -- suppressing mitogen-stimulated PBMC proliferation [51]
PL- BM-, CB- suppressing a-CD3/CD28 induced T cell proliferation  [52]
CP-, BM- -- suppressing T cell activation [53]
WJ- BM-, AT- suppressing mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation [57]
CB- BM-, AT- anti-inflammatory effects [58]
AT- WJ-, BM- suppressing PHA-induced T cell activation [59]
AT-, WJ-, BM- -- suppressing NK cell activation [59]
Cell Therapy (in vivo)      
AT- BM- regeneration following spinal cord injury (rat) [61]
AT-, BM-, WJ-, CB- -- early recovery from spinal cord injury (canine) [62]
AT- BM- improvement from stroke (mouse) [20]
CB- AT- inhibit GBM growth (mouse) [63]
AT- BM-, AM- wound closure (mouse) [66]
UC-, CB-, AT-, BM- -- osteogenesis following bone defect(rat) [67]
CB-, WJ-, AT-, BM- -- in vivoosteogenesis (canine) [68]
H- BM- cardiomyogenesis (rat) [25]
AT- BM-, SY- skeletal muscle regeneration (mouse) [72]
AT- BM- xeno-antibody production (rat) [80]
Note: The comparison demonstrated in the indicated reference is shown. The one with stronger effect on the specific parameter is listed at the column of “Superior”. If all MSCs had comparable effects, they are all listed in the column of “Superior”. Abbreviation of MSCs (source): AF-MSC (amniotic fluid), AM-MSC (amnion), ATMSC (adipose tissue), BM-MSC (bone marrow), CB-MSC (cord blood), CP-MSC (chorionic plate of placenta), H-MSC (heart), I-MSC (islet-derived), L-MSC (lung), OE-MSC (olfactory ectomesenchymal), PB-MSC (peripheral blood), PL-MSC (placenta), SM-MSC (skeletal muscle), SY-MSC (synovial membrane), UC-MSC (umbilical cord), and WJ-MSC (Wharton’s jelly in umbilical cord).
Table 1: Summary of the effects of MSC source on different parameters.