1. C. Waddington proposed the epigenetic landscape: cell differentiation was considered a one-way street with traffic flowing from an immature cell to stem or progenitor cell then to a more mature differentiated state (1957).
2. Sir J. Gurdon succeeded in generating cloned dogs by transferring the nucleus of a tadpole's somatic cell into an oocyte (1962).
3. E. McCulloch and J. Till reported the presence of self-renewing cells in the stroma of mouse bone marrow [stem cells] (1963).
4. Evans et al. and Kaufman et al. established mouse ESCs (1981).
5. Davies et al. first demonstrated direct cell fate conversion by a defined transcription factor (1987).
6. Thomson et al. established human ESCs (1998).
7. Takahashi and Yamanaka generated iPSCs (2006).
8. Totipotent IPSCs were established by Maherali et al. (2007).
9. Yamanaka and Thomson reprogrammed human somatic cells into iPSCs (2007).
10. Peripheral blood cell programming started with research on mice by Hanna (2008).
11. Hong et al. reported generation of iPSCs from mouse T lymphocytes by the introduction of Oct 3/4, Sox 2, Klf4 and c-Myc in a P53 - null background (2009).
12. Generation of human iPSCs from cord blood by Haase et al. (2010).
13. Ye et al. derived human iPSCs from previously frozen cord blood and CD34+ cells from healthy adult donors (2010).
14. Loh et al. reprogrammed human blood cells into iPSCs (2010).
15. Chou reprogrammed newborn cord blood and adult blood mononuclear cells into iPSCs (2011).
16. Lei et al. made human iPSCs to differentiate into both conventional and antigen-specific T lymphocytes for T cell-based immunotherapy by in vitro or in vivo induction systems (2012).
17. Ebihara et al. established human iPSCs that represent the potentially unlimited safe sources of donor-free red blood cells for blood transfusion [without potential of infectious disease via transfusion] (2012).
18. Hou et al. used small molecule compounds to generate mouse iPSCs (2013).
19. The Scottish National Bank Transfusion Service announced synthesis of blood group O RBCs that can hopefully be used by the year 2016 (2014).
Table 5: Landmarks in the history of iPSC evolution.