Figure 7: Outline of iHep-based extra-corporeal closed circuit BAL system for supporting patients with liver failure. Blood drawn from patient through a duallumen catheter is pumped through ultrafilterate generator to separate plasma from the cellular components. The arrows indicate the direction of the flow. The plasma (orange line) is then passed through a hollow fiber cartridge containing iHeps that can remove toxic metabolites. The detoxified plasma is routed through a plasma reservoir for subsequent rounds of detoxification. Part of the detoxified plasma is diverted back to blood cell component path and will enter the body-circulation through the dual-lumen catheter. This extra-corporeal closed circuit BAL system can restore some of the liver’s vital functions and allow time for the patient's liver to repair and regenerate, thus avoiding a transplant, or act as bridge to transplantation.