Cell type Origin Animal and disease model Functionalization(s) or special feature(s) Results Ref.
i. MSC Human TBI rat   Better MSC migration, survival and concentration.  Enhanced tPA and VEGF levels and reduced Nogo-A and neurocan levels in host tissue.  Higher axonal, synaptic and vascular density at the boundary zone.  Reduced lesion volume and improved spatial learning and sensorimotor function. [76-80]
Human TBI rat   Improved MSC retention with minimized diffusion to non-specific organs.Enhanced MSC transdifferentiation into neural lineage with neurite outgrowth.Improved brain metabolism, spatial learning and sensorimotor function. [11]
Rat TBI rat   Absence of gliosis within scaffold.Enhanced MSC transdifferentiation into nerve and vascular endothelial cells. [73]
Human PBI rat In situgelling scaffold Better retention of brain tissue and improved motor functions.MSCs migrated into the surrounding tissue while activated native NSPCs and astrocytes infiltrated into the retained tissue. [12]
Rat Healthy rat - In situgelling scaffold
- Collagen and poly(ethylene glycol) ether tetrasuccinimidylglutarate scaffold with GDNF over-expressing MSCs
GDNF detectable surround the graft site with diminished microglia and astrocytes recruitments in the brain. [59]
ii. NSPC Rat PBI rat   NSPCs migrated into surrounding brain and differentiated into astrocytes, endothelial cells, oligodendrocytes and possibly macrophages. [88]
Mouse TBI mouse Collagen and laminin/fibronectin scaffold Improved cognitive function.
Enhanced NSPC survival and distribution.
Collagen-laminin carriers showed better results than the fibronectin group.
GDNF: Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, TBI: Traumatic brain injury, tPA: tissue plasminogen activator, PBI: Penetrating brain injury, MSC: Mesenchymal stem cells, NSPCs: NEURAL stem/progenitor cells, VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.
Table 1: Collagen-based cell transplantation applied in animal models of brain injury.