Study Reference Study Design No of Patients Cell Dose Procedure Time Follow-Up Outcomes
[106,119] (TOPCARE-AMI Trial) Randomized, controlled n=29 BMNC; n=30 CPC; n=11 Control 7.35±7.31x106 CD34+/CD45+ Cells ~4 days post-AMI 4 months & 1 year Cell therapy significantly improved LVEF and WMS at border-zone. No significant difference between cell therapy groups. CFR normalized and viability in infarct-zone significantly increased with cell therapy. At 1 year LVEF and infarct size significantly improved with cell therapy.
[105,109] (BOOST Trial) Randomised controlled n=30 BMNC; n=30 Control 24.6x108 nucleated cells, 9.5x106 CD34+cells, 3.6x106 haemopoietic colony-forming cells  ~5 days post-AMI 6 Months and 5 years LVEF and WMS at border-zone significantly improved in BMNC group vs. controls at 6 months. EDV, ESV, LV mass index and myocardial injury did not significantly differ from control. No significant difference in MACEs or restenosis at 5 years. No significant improvement in LVEF at 5 years.
[103,104,110] (REPAIR-AMI Trial) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentred n=101 BMNC; n=101 Control 236±174x106 3-7 days post-PCI  4 months & 1 year Significant improvement in LVEF and regional contractility in control and BMNC groups. Absolute change in LVEF significantly greater in BMNC vs. control. Inverse relationship between baseline and absolute change in LVEF in treatment group. Trend for increased contractile function in patients treated >4 days post-PCI. CFR normalized and vascular resistance decreased in treatment group. No MACEs at 1 year.
[111] (REGENT Trial) Randomised controlled, Multicentered n=80 CD34+/CXCR4+ cells; n=80 BMNC; n=40 control 1.90x106 CD34+/CXCR4+ cells; 1.78x108 BMNC 7 days post-PCI 6 Months Procedure is safe. No significant difference in absolute change in LVEF or EDV and ESV between groups. Inverse correlation between baseline LVEF and its change after cell therapy in patients treated with CD34+/CXCR4+ cells but not with BMNCs. Significant improvement in patients receiving any cell therapy when baseline LVEF was <median. No significant difference in MACEs or restenosis between groups.
AMI acute myocardial infarction; WMS wall motion score; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; CFR coronary-flow-reserve; EDV end diastolic volume; ESV end systolic volume; MACE major adverse cardiac events, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; BMNC bone-marrow mononuclear cells
Table 4: Summary table of key trials utilizing direct transplantation of BMNCs in AMI.