Donor cell type

Primary location

Muscle regeneration1

Ex vivo expansion with regenerative potential2

Contribution to Stem cell pool3

Immunogenicity4

Systemic delivery

References

Bone marrow derived stem cells

bone marrow

yes

no

yes phenotypic

unknown

yes

[78]

iPS cells

skin (fibroblasts)

yes

yes

yes phenotypic

unknown

no

[74]

Meschenchymal Stem Cell (MSC)

all organs

yes

yes at least 15 passages

no

unknown

Yes

[79]

Muscle CD133+ve cells

muscle interstitium/circulation

Yes

limited (blood-derived), extensive (muscle-derived)

yes phenotypic

unknown

yes

[80,81]

Muscle SP cells

muscle interstitium

Yes

not tested

yes functional (reinjury)

low

not studied

[82]

Muscle-Derived Stem Cells

Unknown

Yes

yes, MDSC were tested at passage 10-12

yes phenotypic

low

no

[83]

Myoblasts

myofiber

Yes

easy to culture, loss of regenerative potential

yes (probably SC subpopulation)

high

no

[4]

Myoendothelial cells

blood vessels

Yes

yes with regenerative potential

no evidence

unknown

no

[84]

PICs (PW1+ve cells)

muscle interstitium

yes

not tested

yes (phenotypic)

Unknown

not studied

[71]

Satellite Cells

sublamina

yes

no loss of regenerative potential

yes functional (serial transplantation)

low

no

[5,7]

Vessel-associated cells

blood vessels muscle

yes

early passages were tested

yes phenotypic

low

yes

[72,85]

1=Contribution to muscle regeneration after transplantation is scored
2=Scored positive (‘yes’) if the studies report regeneration potential in vivo following extensive ex vivo expansion. In most cases freshly isolated cells were evaluated
3=Scored positive when functional (e.g. serial transplantations or reinjury experiments) or phenotypic contribution to the stem cell pool was reported. Contribution was scored as ‘phenotypic’ only if study report localization to the SC niche with/without expression of Pax7
4=Immunogenicity was considered low, when cells engrafted muscle of immunocompetent hosts
Table 2: Regenerative properties of muscle regenerative cells. The table depicts different types of muscle regenerative cells, most of which are resident to skeletal muscle. Each type of muscle regenerative cell is scored according to the five requirements of the optimal candidate for stem cell therapy (see text).