Methods Pathology Ref
DNA genomic or mitocondrial techniques
DNA Microarrays Juvenile arthritis and spondyloarthropathy
Diabetic nephropathy
Human stent-induced neointima
array-CGH Endometriosis
Autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia
NGS Retinitispigmentosa
Familial cardiovasculardiseases
Type 2 diabetes
CNV Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
Interstitial Lung Abnormalities
Valvular Calcification and Aortic Stenosis
Risk of Alzheimer's Disease
Rheumatoid arthritis Elevated or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes
DNA methylation Osteoarthritic disease
Alzheimer's disease
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Comprehensive one-step analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome Mitochondrial dysfunction and complications associated with diabetes Disease progression in patients with single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions [63,64]
Proteomics and metabolomics
2D-electrophoresis Endometriosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Anderson-Fabry disease.
MALDI/TOF, SELDI/TOF Systemic Sclerosis
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry Metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease Multiple sclerosis [70-71]
Table 1: Examples of clinical applications of DNA genomic/mitochondrial techniques.