Evidence Convincing Probable Possible
Substantially increased risk Cigarette smoking
- -
Moderately increased risk HTA
First degree relatives
- -
Slightly increase risk - - Pipe,  cigar
Environmental smoking
No association High alcoholic consumption
total fluid intake
Intakes of fat and protein (red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood) coffee, tea, milk, juice, soda, punch, water
Slightly decreased riske Moderate alcoholic consumption (beer, wine and wiskey) - -
Moderately Decreased risk fruit and vegetable intake    
Substantially decreased risk - - -
Table 3: Kidney Cancer and Prevention.