Study Number of patients rTMS target rTMS parameters Number of sessions Cognitive function improvement
46 15 L/R DLPFC 20 Hz,
90% MT
1 ↑ Action naming
47 12 Mild
12 Moderate
L/R DLPFC 20 Hz,
90% MT
1 ↑ Action naming (Mild);
↑ Action-object naming (Moderate)
48 5 real
5 sham
L DLPFC 20 Hz,
90% MT;
sham
20 ↑ Auditory comprehension
49 1 L/R DLPFC 10 Hz, 100% MT 10 ↑ MMSE, MIS, Free and Cued Recall Test, IST, TMT
50 8 Broca’s area;
Wernicke’s area;
L/R DLPFC;
L/R pSAC
10 Hz,
90-110% MT
54 ↑ ADAS-COG, CGIC
51 15 Broca’s area;
Wernicke’s area;
L/R DLPFC;
L/R pSAC
10 Hz,
90-110% MT
54 ↑ ADAS-COG, CGIC
52 15 HF
15 LF
15 sham
L/R DLPFC 20 Hz,
90% MT;
1 Hz,
100% MT;
sham
5 ↑ MMSE, IALD, GDS (HF rTMS)
Legend: Hz, Hertz; rTMS, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; L, left; R, right; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; pSAC, parietal somatosensory association cortex; MT, motor threshold; HF, high-frequency; LF, low-frequency; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; IALD, Instrumental Daily Living Activity; ADAS-COG, Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive; CGIC, Clinical Global Impression of Change; IST, Isaac’s Set Test; TMT, Trail-Making Test; ↑, increase; ↓, decrease.
Table 2: Findings from studies employing TMS as a therapeutic tool in AD: cognitive functions results.
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