physiological stressor

concentration

degree of induction of ROS**

 

COX-1***

 

COX-2***

 

cPLA2****

 

referencest

simvastatin

50 nM

0

-

-

-

25,26

aspirin

50 nM

0

-

-

-

27

βAPP

100 nM

0

-

-

-

13,14,20

Aβ40

10 nM

1

-

-

-

13,14

Aβ40

50 nM

1

-

-

-

13,14

Aβ40

100 nM

2

-

-/+

-/+

13,14

Aβ42

10 nM

3

-

+

-

13,14

Aβ42

50 nM

4

-

+

-/+

13,14

Aβ42

100 nM

5

-

++

+

13,14

IL-6

50 nM

5

-

-/+

-/+

32

IL-1β

50 nM

6

-

+

+

28,33

TNFα

50 nM

6

-

+

+

35

Aβ42+IL-1β

50 nM (each)

7

-

+

+

33,36

Aβ42+TNFα

50 nM (each)

7.5

-

+

+

31,35

Hg

50 nM

1.5

-

-

-

16,37,39

Cu

50 nM

3

-

+

-

16,37,40

Zn

50 nM

4

-

+

+

16,37,41

Mn

50 nM

4.5

-

-/+

+

16,38

Fe

50 nM

5

-

-/+

+

16,31,37,42

Al

50 nM

9

-

++

++

16-19,31,37,42

Al+Fe

50 nM (each)

10

+

+++

+++

16-19,31,37

H2O2

50 nM

10

+

+++

+++

16,31,33

Table 1 Effects of different stressors, at nM concentrations, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human primary neuronal-glial (HNG) cell cultures, and induced inflammatory consequences as indicated by COX-2 and cPLA2 up-regulation*.
Table 1: *Depends on age of cell cultures and cell type; HNG cells cultured for 2 weeks under optimum growth conditions; each physiological stressor was assayed three times. ** scale of 1-10 based on these 20 evaluations ***detection of cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) after 3 hrs treatment ****detection of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) after 3 hrs treatment tReferences quoted here include relevant research on metal-sulfate induced oxidative stress and inflammatory gene expression.