Challenge Testing Approach
Inflammation and oxidative stress Immunohistochemistry for TNF-a  and MDA in kidneys, myocardium, vasculature, and brain
Cardiac Toxicity Electrocardiograms, clinical chemistry including Troponin, histopathology, and full cardiovascular and pulmonary assessment in telemetered monkeys
Nephrotoxicity Renal glomerular filtration rate  and renal blood flow study; clinical chemistry; urinalysis; histopathology; measured presence of hemoglobin in urine
Safety Margin High dose/high volume groups included to maximize dosing levels
Clinical Pathology Interference Interference assessment and correction for affected parameters
Table 1: Challenges and Unique Features in the SANGUINATE Toxicity and Safety Program.